These consider some of the issues relating to the use of animals in biomedical research:
It is estimated that between only 5% (Contopoulos-Ioannidis et al 2003) and 10% of animal study interventions result in approved use in humans (Kola and Landis 2004; van der Worp et al 2010). However the rate varies widely by disease; cancer is estimated to have a 5% success rate (Kola and Landis 2004), Alzheimer’s disease a 0.4% success rate (Cummings et al 2014) and stroke a dismal success rate of 0.1% (Howells et al 2012). The highest rate -18% – appears to be for cardiovascular disease (Vatner 2016).
Elsewhere there is a similar story. In the field of spinal cord injury, none of the 22 drugs that worked in animals turned out to work in humans (Geerts 2009). In the case of inflammatory diseases, there is almost no correlation between human and mouse data (Seok et al 2013). Every approach to treating sepsis that was successful in animals has failed in humans (Leist and Hartung 2013). All but one of the experimental treatments that improved motor neurone disease in animals failed in human trials, and the benefits of the one successful treatment, in terms of extended survival, are considered negligible (Perrin 2014).